What tests do “cancer” take: laboratory diagnostics of oncological diseases
- Molecular-biological study of blood on oncomarkers can be performed both in public clinics and in private medical centers.
- The results of the study of serum alpha-fetoprotein level are usually ready within 1-2 days. If urgent analysis is needed – within two hours.
- Molecular biological examination of blood for oncomarkers should be performed on an empty stomach or 4 hours after eating.
How to prepare for the study?
- If there is a suspicion of cancer, it is recommended to pass a molecular biological examination of blood to oncomarkers.
- Many commercial laboratories offer customers various promotions, discounts and loyalty programs.
- The quality control of laboratory research, carried out according to international standards, is an additional guarantee of the accuracy of the test results.
What should I consider when choosing a laboratory?
Cancer is a disease that requires an integrated approach to diagnosis. It is possible to put such a diagnosis only after a complex of studies. But the usual tests will help to suspect this disease, which is easy to pass in almost any laboratory. It is laboratory diagnostics that helps to determine with which body the possible problems are connected, and already purposefully search for their cause.
General blood test: will he show cancer?
- A malignant tumor is an actively growing tissue that requires a large amount of “building material” and energy. She actively consumes substances necessary for the growth of the body, and releases metabolic products, including those with toxicity. These two processes involve the main changes that can be seen in the blood test results.
- Intoxication leads to an increase in ESR, an increase in the number of neutrophils and a decrease in the number of lymphocytes. If these signs are accompanied by weakness, fatigue, loss of appetite and weight loss, the most serious diagnosis should be ruled out as soon as possible. This combination of signs is most pronounced in some forms of lymphogranulomatosis, with histiocytosis and neuroblastomas.
- In tumors of the internal organs, hemopoietic system often suffers, hemoglobin decreases. The toxic effect of the products of vital activity of tumor cells damages the membranes of erythrocytes, because of which their pathological forms can appear in the blood – echinocytes. In cancer of the bone marrow, immature blood cells are found.
- The blood test for cancer is conducted in the same way as with any other disease. In the treatment room, the patient is taken whole blood in a specially prepared test tube. To hand over the biomaterial it is necessary on an empty stomach or at least 4 hours after eating. The result will be ready in 1-2 working days.
- The specificity of such an investigation is not high, and it is impossible to diagnose cancer according to the results of a single blood test alone. The same increase in ESR is always observed with inflammation. Anemia can occur with malnutrition, iron deficiency or other diseases.
General analysis of urine in the diagnosis of cancer:
- In the analysis of urine with oncology, there are rarely specific changes. But any deviation in the results is an occasion to conduct a more thorough examination.
- Blood in the urine is an early symptom of cancer of the bladder or urinary tract. But it can also appear with urolithiasis or glomerulonephritis.
- Ketone bodies speak of enhanced catabolism, that is, tissue decay. This sign can appear both in the tumor process, and, for example, with diabetes mellitus or during a diet.
- For the analysis, the morning portion of urine is collected in a sterile container. Before collecting the material, you need to take a shower so that the cells from the surface of the skin do not get into the container.
- Within 1-2 days, the result will be ready, with which you need to see a doctor. On one analysis of urine to diagnose and even to suspect an oncology it is impossible. It is necessary to take into account other results of tests and examinations, as well as the available symptoms.
Biochemical blood test: signals of the tumor process
In the biochemical analysis of blood, seven indicators are most important for the diagnosis of cancer:
Total protein and albumin. Tumors actively consume protein, because of this, its blood level decreases. In addition, appetite is often lost, the building material for cells ceases to enter the body in sufficient quantities. And if the cancer affects the liver, the production of protein in the body is significantly reduced, even with normal nutrition.
Urea. An increase in this indicator in the blood indicates a worsening of kidney function or an active decay of the protein. This can occur both in tumor intoxication and in the disintegration of tumor tissue, including in the effective treatment of cancer.
The change in blood sugar can be observed with sarcomas, lung cancer.